The measures to establish are included either in the technical or in the operational category. This project will develop one per type. Into the technical measures, there are some such as acoustic devices, water cannons or laser use. The problem, apart from the efficacy, is the implementation which is usually expensive and/or difficult to coordinate with the fishing activity. The most approved and feasible in every respect is the so-called bird-scaring lines (tori poles) which despite of being known is not systematically used. It might be because the design was not advised or agreed with neither the sailors nor the skippers who are the ones using the device and who could offert basic information to achieve a really useful design.
This is exactly the way that the ESPANTAVES project will follow. Two specific bird-scaring devices will be designed for both longline and trawling fisheries in a way that they allow an efficient fishery. In addition, gathering the specific information and opinions from the sector the devices will be easy to install by the fishing crew avoiding any disturbance in their activity. This would mean a long-term use to achieve an effective operation by reducing the rate of incidental catch.
There will be an initial bibliographic search about the incidental bycatch in longliners and trawlers –classified by species, fishing grounds, type of vessel as well as regarding the state of the art of bird-scaring systems. The report obtained together with the opinions from the sector will help to promote the design of a specific tori line, attached to a user’s manual containing the technical specifications and recommendations.
The other measure to develop in ESPANTAVES is an operational measure regarding the habit of seabirds to go regularly to the gunwale, which is constantly expelling the guts and wastes generated in the factory area. They are so close to the trawler lines and the nets during both setting and tackling that the risk of the seabirds to be beaten or tangled increases noticeably.
The proposal consists of avoiding the constant discharge of wastes from the vessel and therefore, a permanent approach of seabirds to the origin of risk.
Technically the solution lies in the thoroughly detailed design of different storage tanks that contain for long periods the wastes generated during the processing activity. They must have systems for a quick release of the content at night or during the moments when there is little presence of seabirds. The tanks should be placed in the processing area or next to it where they do not interfere with the flow of people and goods. In addition, the connection system between conveyor belts and peripherals should be modified for the wastes to reach their destination automatically. Likewise, depending on the volumes to irradiate this system will be linked to the setting of a specific equipment to treat guts thermally and kill any larval form of parasite.
Finally, it will be developed a design adapted to every type of the main fishing vessels operating in our coasts. Those designs will go with user’s manuals and safety guidelines as well as a report on the building and installation costs.
Additionally there are the tasks relating to communication, dissemination and awareness that in no way are less important than the previous. Regarding to events an initial session for the launching of the project and a final session to present the results will be organized.
There will be also two awareness workshops, one for longline fisheries and another for trawling fisheries, expected for the medium term and addressed to vessel owners, skippers and sailors. This communication activity will be completed with a specific website of the project www.espantaves.eu and the design and edition of dissemination material about the project.